عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Although the newspaper industry in Iran had been established in 1836 by Mirza Saleh Shirazi, the peak of the press and its influence began with/ after the Persian Constitutional Campaign. The constitutional decree was signed by Mozaffaraddin Shah when Iran’s press were gradually learning methods of criticism from Persian media outside Iran and the press published in the Caucasus, stepping into political and social criticism. With the victory of the Constitutional Revolution, the establishment of the National Council, and the rise of Mohammad Ali Shah, social criticism began to criticize the ruling regime and the boldness of journalists gradually turned to extremism. Just as the press had played a pivotal role in the victory of the Constitutional Revolution, they triggered its failure and the 1908 bombardment of the constitutional parliament as well. From this historical review, it can be concluded that extremism acts as a deterrent to social movements. Just as laxness causes inertia and stagnation, extremism hinders valuable progressive movements. The present article aims to investigate pathologically the contents of the Constitutional era’s press, including Sur-e-Esrafil, Habl-al-Matin, Qanun, Tamaddon, and Majles Newspapers from this angle.